Iranian Journal of Orthodontics

Published by: Kowsar

Orthodontics Diagnosis and Treatment Plans of Craniosynostosis Syndromes, Report of Three Cases

Tahereh Hosseinzadeh Nik 1 , 2 , Abolghasem Bahador 3 , * , Mohammad Sadegh Ahmad Akhoundi 1 , 2 and Shima Sam 4
Authors Information
1 Dental Research Center, Dentistry Research Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
2 Department of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
3 Department of Orthodontics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
4 Dentist, Tehran, Iran
Article information
  • Iranian Journal of Orthodontics: 14 (1); e65275
  • Published Online: December 22, 2018
  • Article Type: Case Report
  • Received: December 17, 2017
  • Revised: April 21, 2018
  • Accepted: May 4, 2018
  • DOI: 10.5812/ijo.65275

To Cite: Hosseinzadeh Nik T , Bahador A, Ahmad Akhoundi M S, Sam S. Orthodontics Diagnosis and Treatment Plans of Craniosynostosis Syndromes, Report of Three Cases, Iran J Ortho. Online ahead of Print ; 14(1):e65275. doi: 10.5812/ijo.65275.

Copyright © 2018, Iranian Journal of Orthodontics. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License ( which permits copy and redistribute the material just in noncommercial usages, provided the original work is properly cited.
1. Introduction
2. Case Presentation
3. Discussion
  • 1. Posnick JC, Ruiz RL. The craniofacial dysostosis syndromes: Current surgical thinking and future directions. Cleft Palate Craniofac J. 2000;37(5):433. doi: 10.1597/1545-1569(2000)037<0433:TCDSCS>2.0.CO;2. [PubMed: 11034022].
  • 2. Posnick JC. The craniofacial dysostosis syndromes. Current reconstructive strategies. Clin Plast Surg. 1994;21(4):585-98. [PubMed: 7813158].
  • 3. Ahmed I, Afzal A. Diagnosis and evaluation of Crouzon syndrome. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak. 2009;19(5):318-20. [PubMed: 19409168].
  • 4. Hlongwa P. Early orthodontic management of Crouzon syndrome: A case report. J Maxillofac Oral Surg. 2009;8(1):74-6. doi: 10.1007/s12663-009-0018-7. [PubMed: 23139476]. [PubMed Central: PMC3454018].
  • 5. Padmanabhan V, Hegde AM, Rai K. Crouzon's syndrome: A review of literature and case report. Contemp Clin Dent. 2011;2(3):211-4. doi: 10.4103/0976-237X.86464. [PubMed: 22215936]. [PubMed Central: PMC3214529].
  • 6. Ibrahimi OA, Chiu ES, McCarthy JG, Mohammadi M. Understanding the molecular basis of Apert syndrome. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2005;115(1):264-70. [PubMed: 15622262].
  • 7. Cohen MM Jr, Kreiborg S. New indirect method for estimating the birth prevalence of the Apert syndrome. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 1992;21(2):107-9. [PubMed: 1602157].
  • 8. Tolarova MM, Harris JA, Ordway DE, Vargervik K. Birth prevalence, mutation rate, sex ratio, parents' age, and ethnicity in Apert syndrome. Am J Med Genet. 1997;72(4):394-8. [PubMed: 9375719].
  • 9. Jezela-Stanek A, Krajewska-Walasek M. Genetic causes of syndromic craniosynostoses. Eur J Paediatr Neurol. 2013;17(3):221-4. doi: 10.1016/j.ejpn.2012.09.009. [PubMed: 23062756].
  • 10. Hackett A, Rowe L. FGFR1 Pfeiffer syndrome without craniosynostosis: An additional case report. Clin Dysmorphol. 2006;15(4):207-10. doi: 10.1097/ [PubMed: 16957473].
  • 11. Junior HM, de Aquino SN, Machado RA, Leao LL, Coletta RD, Burle-Aguiar MJ. Pfeiffer syndrome: Clinical and genetic findings in five Brazilian families. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal. 2015;20(1):e52-8. [PubMed: 25129254]. [PubMed Central: PMC4320421].
  • 12. Hohoff A, Joos U, Meyer U, Ehmer U, Stamm T. The spectrum of Apert syndrome: phenotype, particularities in orthodontic treatment, and characteristics of orthognathic surgery. Head Face Med. 2007;3:10. doi: 10.1186/1746-160X-3-10. [PubMed: 17286873]. [PubMed Central: PMC1821014].
  • 13. Maspero C, Giannini L, Galbiati G, Kairyte L, Farronato G. Non surgical treatment of Crouzon syndrome. Stomatologija. 2014;16(2):72-80. [PubMed: 25209230].
  • 14. Matsumoto K, Nakanishi H, Koizumi Y, Seike T, Okazaki M, Yokozeki M, et al. Segmental distraction of the midface in a patient with Crouzon syndrome. J Craniofac Surg. 2002;13(2):273-8. [PubMed: 12000885].
  • 15. McCarthy JG, La Trenta GS, Breitbart AS, Grayson BH, Bookstein FL. The Le Fort III advancement osteotomy in the child under 7 years of age. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1990;86(4):633-46. discussion 647-9. [PubMed: 2217577].
  • 16. Meazzini MC, Mazzoleni F, Caronni E, Bozzetti A. Le Fort III advancement osteotomy in the growing child affected by Crouzon's and Apert's syndromes: Presurgical and postsurgical growth. J Craniofac Surg. 2005;16(3):369-77. [PubMed: 15915099].
  • 17. Phillips JH, George AK, Tompson B. Le Fort III osteotomy or distraction osteogenesis imperfecta: Your choice. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2006;117(4):1255-60. doi: 10.1097/01.prs.0000204865.97302.5c. [PubMed: 16582797].
  • 18. Kuroda S, Watanabe K, Ishimoto K, Nakanishi H, Moriyama K, Tanaka E. Long-term stability of LeFort III distraction osteogenesis with a rigid external distraction device in a patient with Crouzon syndrome. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2011;140(4):550-61. doi: 10.1016/j.ajodo.2009.12.038. [PubMed: 21967944].
  • 19. Polley JW, Figueroa AA. Management of severe maxillary deficiency in childhood and adolescence through distraction osteogenesis with an external, adjustable, rigid distraction device. J Craniofac Surg. 1997;8(3):181-5. discussion 186. [PubMed: 9482064].
  • 20. Meling TR, Hans-Erik H, Per S, Due-Tonnessen BJ. Le Fort III distraction osteogenesis in syndromal craniosynostosis. J Craniofac Surg. 2006;17(1):28-39. doi: 10.1097/01.scs.0000194177.21916.f1. [PubMed: 16432404].
  • 21. Shetye PR, Boutros S, Grayson BH, McCarthy JG. Midterm follow-up of midface distraction for syndromic craniosynostosis: A clinical and cephalometric study. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2007;120(6):1621-32. doi: 10.1097/01.prs.0000267422.37907.6f. [PubMed: 18040197].
  • 22. Fearon JA. Halo distraction of the Le Fort III in syndromic craniosynostosis: A long-term assessment. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2005;115(6):1524-36. [PubMed: 15861055].
  • 23. Fearon JA. The Le Fort III osteotomy: To distract or not to distract? Plast Reconstr Surg. 2001;107(5):1091-103. discussion 1104-6. [PubMed: 11373547].
  • 24. Nout E, Cesteleyn LL, van der Wal KG, van Adrichem LN, Mathijssen IM, Wolvius EB. Advancement of the midface, from conventional Le Fort III osteotomy to Le Fort III distraction: Review of the literature. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2008;37(9):781-9. doi: 10.1016/j.ijom.2008.04.006. [PubMed: 18486452].
  • 25. Nurko C, Quinones R. Dental and orthodontic management of patients with Apert and Crouzon syndromes. Oral Maxillofac Surg Clin North Am. 2004;16(4):541-53. doi: 10.1016/j.coms.2004.08.003. [PubMed: 18088753].
  • 26. Kaloust S, Ishii K, Vargervik K. Dental development in Apert syndrome. Cleft Palate Craniofac J. 1997;34(2):117-21. doi: 10.1597/1545-1569_1997_034_0117_ddias_2.3.co_2. [PubMed: 9138505].
  • 27. Waitzman AA, Posnick JC, Armstrong DC, Pron GE. Craniofacial skeletal measurements based on computed tomography: Part II. Normal values and growth trends. Cleft Palate Craniofac J. 1992;29(2):118-28. doi: 10.1597/1545-1569_1992_029_0118_csmboc_2.3.co_2. [PubMed: 1571345].
  • 28. Oberoi S, Hoffman WY, Vargervik K. Craniofacial team management in Apert syndrome. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2012;141(4 Suppl):S82-7. doi: 10.1016/j.ajodo.2012.01.003. [PubMed: 22449603].
  • 29. Maspero C, Giannini L, Iazzetti F, Tronca S, Farronato G. Eziopatogenesi e manifestazioni cliniche della sindrome di Crouzon: Revisione della letteratura. Mondo Ortodontico. 2010;35(5):249-60. doi: 10.1016/j.mor.2010.01.002.

Featured Image:

Creative Commons License Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 4.0 International License .

Search Relations:



Create Citiation Alert
via Google Reader

Readers' Comments