Iranian Journal of Orthodontics

Published by: Kowsar

Cephalometric Norms in an Iranian Kurdish Population According to the Steiner Analysis

Mohammad Moslem Imani 1 , Saman Farzaneh 2 , Ali Ghanbari 3 and Sepideh Arab 4 , *
Authors Information
1 Department of Orthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran
2 School of Dentistry, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran
3 Department of Anatomical Sciences, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran
4 Department of Orthodontics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
Article information
  • Iranian Journal of Orthodontics: March 31, 2019, 14 (1); e63439
  • Published Online: January 20, 2019
  • Article Type: Original Article
  • Received: October 30, 2017
  • Revised: May 7, 2018
  • Accepted: May 7, 2018
  • DOI: 10.5812/ijo.63439

To Cite: Imani M M, Farzaneh S, Ghanbari A, Arab S. Cephalometric Norms in an Iranian Kurdish Population According to the Steiner Analysis, Iran J Ortho. 2019 ; 14(1):e63439. doi: 10.5812/ijo.63439.

Copyright © 2019, Iranian Journal of Orthodontics. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License ( which permits copy and redistribute the material just in noncommercial usages, provided the original work is properly cited.
1. Background
2. Objectives
3. Methods
4. Results
5. Discussion
  • 1. Haring LL. Dental radiography principle and techniques. 2nd ed. PhLadelphia: W.B. Saunders; 2000.
  • 2. Dincer B, Yetkiner E, Aras I, Attin T, Attin R. Influence of lateral cephalometric radiographs on extraction decision in skeletal class I patients. Head Face Med. 2013;9:36. doi: 10.1186/1746-160X-9-36. [PubMed: 24304887]. [PubMed Central: PMC3932141].
  • 3. Taki AA, Oguz F, Abuhijleh E. Facial soft tissue values in Persian adults with normal occlusion and well-balanced faces. Angle Orthod. 2009;79(3):491-4. doi: 10.2319/020408-62.1. [PubMed: 19413374].
  • 4. McNamara JA Jr. A method of cephalometric evaluation. Am J Orthod. 1984;86(6):449-69. doi: 10.1016/S0002-9416(84)90352-X. [PubMed: 6594933].
  • 5. Al Zain T, Ferguson DJ. Cephalometric characterization of an adult Emirati sample with class I malocclusion. J Orthod Sci. 2012;1(1):11-5. doi: 10.4103/2278-0203.94772. [PubMed: 24987619]. [PubMed Central: PMC4072350].
  • 6. Hwang HS, Kim WS, McNamara JA Jr. Ethnic differences in the soft tissue profile of Korean and European-American adults with normal occlusions and well-balanced faces. Angle Orthod. 2002;72(1):72-80. doi: 10.1043/0003-3219(2002)072<0072:EDITST>2.0.CO;2. [PubMed: 11843277].
  • 7. Altemus LA. A comparison of cephalofacial relationships. Angle Orthod. 1960;30(4):223-40.
  • 8. Alcalde RE, Jinno T, Pogrel MA, Matsumura T. Cephalometric norms in Japanese adults. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 1998;56(2):129-34. doi: 10.1016/S0278-2391(98)90849-7. [PubMed: 9461133].
  • 9. Craven AH. A radiographic cephalometric study of the Central Australian Aboriginal. Angle Orthod. 1958;28(1):12-35.
  • 10. Hajighadimi M, Dougherty HL, Garakani F. Cephalometric evaluation of Iranian children and its comparison with Tweed's and Steiner's standards. Am J Orthod. 1981;79(2):192-7. doi: 10.1016/0002-9416(81)90317-1. [PubMed: 6937142].
  • 11. Atit MB, Darda M, Deshmukh SV, Naik C, Rahalkar J, Subramanian V. Mean values of Steiner, Tweed, Ricketts and McNamara analysis in Maratha ethnic population: A cephalometric study. APOS Trends Orthod. 2013;3(5):137. doi: 10.4103/2321-1407.119095.
  • 12. Nachiappan S, Tharanikumar S, Chandran A, Anusudha P, Nandini GD, Balasubramaniam M. A study to evaluate cephalometric hard tissue profile of Tamil population for orthognathic surgery. J Pharm Bioallied Sci. 2015;7(Suppl 2):S680-6. doi: 10.4103/0975-7406.163600. [PubMed: 26538943]. [PubMed Central: PMC4606685].
  • 13. Hassan AH. Cephalometric norms for saudi adults living in the western region of Saudi Arabia. Angle Orthod. 2006;76(1):109-13. doi: 10.1043/0003-3219(2006)076[0109:CNFSAL]2.0.CO;2. [PubMed: 16448278].
  • 14. Sharma JN. Steiner's cephalometric norms for the Nepalese population. J Orthod. 2011;38(1):21-31. doi: 10.1179/14653121141209. [PubMed: 21367825].
  • 15. Kilic N, Catal G, Oktay H. McNamara norms for Turkish adolescents with balanced faces and normal occlusion. Aust Orthod J. 2010;26(1):33-7. [PubMed: 20575197].
  • 16. Ioi H, Nakata S, Nakasima A, Counts AL. Comparison of cephalometric norms between Japanese and Caucasian adults in antero-posterior and vertical dimension. Eur J Orthod. 2007;29(5):493-9. doi: 10.1093/ejo/cjm059. [PubMed: 17974539].
  • 17. Gu Y, McNamara JA Jr, Sigler LM, Baccetti T. Comparison of craniofacial characteristics of typical Chinese and Caucasian young adults. Eur J Orthod. 2011;33(2):205-11. doi: 10.1093/ejo/cjq054. [PubMed: 20709723].
  • 18. Khan T, Ahmed I, Gul e E. Cephalometric measurments of a Pakistani adult sample according to Jarabak's analysis. J Pak Med Assoc. 2013;63(11):1345-8. [PubMed: 24392516].
  • 19. Fadeju AD, Otuyemi OD, Ngom PI, Newman-Nartey M. A study of cephalometric soft tissue profile among adolescents from the three West African countries of Nigeria, Ghana and Senegal. J Orthod. 2013;40(1):53-61. doi: 10.1179/1465313312Y.0000000033. [PubMed: 23524548].
  • 20. Gunter MM. Kurdish awakening: Nation building in a fragmented homeland. Middle East Q. 2015;22:3.
  • 21. Azarbayejani S, Omrani A, Kalaantar-Motamedi A, Abdellahi M, Taalebi V, Teimoori F. Cephalometric norms for 6-17 year-old Iranians with normal occlusion and well-balanced faces. Dent Res J (Isfahan). 2014;11(3):327-35. [PubMed: 25097642]. [PubMed Central: PMC4119365].
  • 22. Basafa M, Shahri F. cephalometric analysis of mashhad children based on "natural head position". J Mashhad Dent Sch. 2007;31:4-8.
  • 23. Arash VA, Shahabi M. [Cephalometric survey of 12-18 year old adolescents with normal occlusion (Babol)]. J Babol U Med Sci 2004. 2004;6:45-8. Persian.
  • 24. Farhadian N, Miresmaeili AF, Mahjoub H. [Check cephalometric standards for female students with normal occlusion in Hamedan 1378-1379 academic year]. Sci J Hamdan Univ Med Sci. 2003;10:43-6. Persian.
  • 25. Tenti FV. Cephalometric analysis as a tool for treatment planning and evaluation. Eur J Orthod. 1981;3(4):241-5. [PubMed: 6945994].
  • 26. Al-Khawaja NFK, Kadhom ZM, Al-Tuma RR. Soft tissue cephalometric norms for a sample of iraqi population group using legan and burstone analysis. Kerbala J Med. 2015;8(2):2222-8.
  • 27. Al-Jasser NM. Cephalometric evaluation for Saudi population using the Downs and Steiner analysis. J Contemp Dent Pract. 2005;6(2):52-63. [PubMed: 15915204].
  • 28. Hussien E, Al-Khateeb S, Mowais MA. Palestinians norms of Steiner cephalometric analysis. World J Orthod. 2010;11(4):e5-9. [PubMed: 21490988].
  • 29. Anderson AA, Anderson AC, Hornbuckle AC, Hornbuckle K. Biological derivation of a range of cephalometric norms for children of African American descent (after Steiner). Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2000;118(1):90-100. doi: 10.1067/mod.2000.103258. [PubMed: 10893478].

Featured Image:

Creative Commons License Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 4.0 International License .

Search Relations:



Create Citiation Alert
via Google Reader

Readers' Comments