Iranian Journal of Orthodontics

Published by: Kowsar

Effect of Loop Geometry on Horizontal Forces of Vertical Loops: A Finite Element Analysis

Hasan Salehi 1 and Sepide Arab 2 , *
Authors Information
1 Orthodontist, Private Practice, Boushehr, IR Iran
2 Department of Orthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, IR Iran
Article information
  • Iranian Journal of Orthodontics: December 30, 2015, 10 (2); e4988
  • Published Online: December 29, 2015
  • Article Type: Research Article
  • Received: October 26, 2015
  • Accepted: December 4, 2015
  • DOI: 10.17795/ijo-4988

To Cite: Salehi H, Arab S. Effect of Loop Geometry on Horizontal Forces of Vertical Loops: A Finite Element Analysis, Iran J Ortho. 2015 ; 10(2):e4988. doi: 10.17795/ijo-4988.

Copyright © 2015, Iranian Journal of Orthodontics. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License ( which permits copy and redistribute the material just in noncommercial usages, provided the original work is properly cited.
1. Background
2. Objectives
3. Materials and Methods
4. Results
5. Discussion
  • 1. Proffit WR, Fields JHW, Sarver DM. Contemporary orthodontics. 2014;
  • 2. Burstone Cj. The biomechanical rationale of orthodontic therapy. 1991;
  • 3. Proffite WR, Fields HW. sarver DM. Contemporary orthodontics. ST. 2007;
  • 4. DeFranco JC, Koenig HA, Burstone Cj. Three-dimensional large displacement analysis of orthodontic appliances. J Appl Biomater Biomech. 1976; 9(12): 793-801[DOI]
  • 5. Koenig HA, Vanderby R, Solonche DJ, Burstone CJ. Force Systems from Orthodontic Appliances: An Analytical and Experimental Comparison. Journal of Biomechanical Engineering. 1980; 102(4): 294[DOI][PubMed]
  • 6. Ronay F, Kleinert W, Melsen B, Burstone Cj. Force system developed by V bends in an elastic orthodontic wire. A. J Orthod. 1989; 96(4): 295-301[DOI]
  • 7. Geramy A. Alveolar bone resorption and the center of resistance modification (3-D analysis by means of the finite element method). Am J Orthod. 2000; 117(4): 399-405[DOI]
  • 8. Geramy A. Initial stress produced in the periodontal membrane by orthodontic loads in the presence of varying loss of alveolar bone: a three-dimensional finite element analysis. Eur J Orthod. 2002; 24(1): 21-33[PubMed]
  • 9. Geramy A, Morgano SM. Finite element analysis of three designs of an implant-supported molar crown. J Prosthet Dent. 2004; 92(5): 434-40[DOI][PubMed]
  • 10. Safavi MR, Geramy A, Khezri AK. M/F ratios of four different closing loops: 3D analysis using the finite element method (FEM). Aust Orthod J. 2006; 22(2): 121
  • 11. Chan E, Darendeliler MA. Physical properties of root cementum: Part 5. Volumetric analysis of root resorption craters after application of light and heavy orthodontic forces. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2005; 127(2): 186-95[DOI][PubMed]
  • 12. Darendeliler MA, Kharbanda OP, Chan EK, Srivicharnkul P, Rex T, Swain MV, et al. Root resorption and its association with alterations in physical properties, mineral contents and resorption craters in human premolars following application of light and heavy controlled orthodontic forces. Orthod Craniofac Res. 2004; 7(2): 79-97[PubMed]
  • 13. Gonzales C, Hotokezaka H, Yoshimatsu M, Yozgatian JH, Darendeliler MA, Yoshida N. Force magnitude and duration effects on amount of tooth movement and root resorption in the rat molar. Angle Orthod. 2008; 78(3): 502-9[DOI][PubMed]
  • 14. Yee JA, Turk T, Elekdag-Turk S, Cheng LL, Darendeliler MA. Rate of tooth movement under heavy and light continuous orthodontic forces. Am.J Orthod. 2009; 136(2): 150. e1-9
  • 15. Proffit WR, Fields HW, Sarver DM. Contemporary Orthodontics. 2014;
  • 16. Graber LW, Vanarsdall RL, Vig KWL. Orthodontics: Current Principles and Techniques. 2011;
Creative Commons License Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 4.0 International License .
Readers' Comments